Physical health is defined here as the embodiment of the health, wellbeing, cognitive and other physical benefits associated with live music production or attendance. It is well described by consumers and existing literature, and we do not revisit these arguments here.

Evidence of negative health outcomes directly attributable to live music attendance were absent from our data, and the body of research we consulted in preparing this report. There is nevertheless an anecdotal correlation between live music and excess alcohol consumption, tobacco, illicit drug use and exposure to noise. The extent to which these are causal or even population attributable risks is encouraged as a direction for the future research, with an emphasis on decoupling live music from other night-time or creative industries.